Bunions, also known as hallux valgus, are common deformities which take the form of a bump that develops on the joint at the base of the big toe. Bunions occur when the big toe pushes against the adjacent toe, which causes the joint to protrude outward, creating the appearance of a bony protrusion on one side of your foot. Over time, this can become larger and more painful as the joint becomes misaligned.
What causes Bunions?
- Tight, narrow footwear
- Congenital deformities
- Flat feet
- Certain occupations
- A bony bump on the side of your big toe
- Pain, swelling, and tenderness around the bunion
- Red, swollen, tender skin over the bony lumps
- Pain and discomfort, especially when wearing shoes or walking
- Limited movement of the big toe
Bunions can progress over time and may lead to additional complications, such as bursitis (inflammation of the bursa), hammertoes (abnormal bending of the other toes), or corns and calluses due to friction against footwear.
- REST: Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation
- Ice application to reduce inflammation and provide pain relief
- Footwear – Assessment and fitting to find ensure you are wearing roomy, comfortable shoes
- Padding and taping
- Custom Orthotics
- Bunion splint
- Bunion guard
- Cortisone injection
Surgery (in severe cases) – This involves realigning the affected joint and removing the bony prominence